The following list is the complete list of cited works in the PhD dissertation.

For Korean-language references, I have provided an English-language translation first, followed by the Korean reference in parentheses. On the other hand, Korean translations have not been provided of English references.

When translating Korean titles to English, I have referenced an English translation provided by the authors, when available. But if the translation provided was incomplete or the phrasing overly unnatural, I have made changes to better reflect the Korean title in idiomatic English.

For consistency, Korean names have been presented family name first and given name second in the references. However, in the body citations with Korean names, I have listed last names first followed by initials of given names.

Acs, Zoltan. 2006. “How is entrepreneurship good for economic growth?” Innovations: technology, governance, globalization 1, no. 1: 97–107.

Acs, Zoltan, & David Audretsch. 1987. “Innovation, market structure, and firm size.” The Review of Economics and Statistics 69, no. 4: 567–574.

Act on Special Measures for Support of Small Enterprises and Micro Enterprises. Small and Medium Business Administration (Republic of Korea; currently: Ministry of SMEs and Startups). [「소기업 및 소상공인 지원을 위한 특별조치법」, 중소기업청 (현: 중소벤처기업부).]

Act on the Protection of and Support for Micro Enterprises. Small and Medium Business Administration (Republic of Korea; currently: Ministry of SMEs and Startups). [「소상공인 보호 및 지원에 관한 법률」, 중소기업청 (현: 중소벤처기업부).]

An, Sang-Bong, and Yong-Joon Shin. 2017. “The Current Status and Development Measures of Start-Up Support System of Korea.” Journal of Business History 32, no. 2 (Consecutive Vol. 82): 149–172. [안상봉ㆍ신용준(2017), “우리나라 창업지원제도 현황과 발전방안,” 경영사학, 제32집 제2호 (통권 82호), pp. 149∼172.]

Andersson, Pernilla, & Eskil Wadensjo. 2007. “Do the unemployed become successful entrepreneurs? A comparison between the unemployed, inactive and wage-earners.” Institute for the Study of Labor, IZA Discussion Papers, No. 2402.

Apte, Uday, Uday Karmarkar, and Hiranya Nath. 2008. “Information Services in the U.S. Economy: Value, Jobs, and Management Implications.” California Management Review 50, no. 3: 12–30.

Aquilina, Matteo, Rainer Klump, and Carlo Pietrobelli. 2006. “Factor Substitution, Average Firm Size and Economic Growth.” Small Business Economics 26, no. 3 (April): 203–214.

Arnold, Nancy and Rural Institute, University of Montana (2014), “Rapid Literature Review of Self-Employment Research.” Employment, Paper 33.

Bae, Jin-Sung, Joo-Wan Park, and Hyeok-Jun Yun. 2018. 2018 Micro Enterprise Finances On-Site Survey Report. Korea Federation of Credit Guarantee Foundations. [배진성ㆍ윤혁준ㆍ박주완(2018), “2018 소상공인 금융실태조사 보고서,” 신용보증재단중앙회.]

Bahn, Sung-sik, Sang-Gu Seo, Kyung-Mo Song, Dong-Hwan Cho, Jong-Hae Park, Min-Seok Cha, & Jong-Bok Park. 2013a. GEM Korea 2012 Report. Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology and Small and Medium Business Administration, Jinju.

Bahn, Sung-sik, Sang-Gu Seo, Kyung-Mo Song, Dong-Hwan Cho, Jong-Hae Park, Min-Seok Cha, and Jong-Bok Park.. 2013b. “Entrepreneurship in Korea: based on Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Korea 2012.” Journal of the Korean Entrepreneurship Society 8, no. 3: 27~57. [반성식ㆍ서상구ㆍ송경모ㆍ조동환ㆍ박종해ㆍ차민석ㆍ박종복(2013), 「한국의 기업가정신 활동: 2012년 글로벌기업가정신연구(GEM)를 중심으로」, 한국창업학회지 제8권 제3호, pp. 27~57.]

Bahn, Sung-sik, Sang-Gu Seo, Kyung-Mo Song, Jong-Hae Park, Min-Seok Cha, Min-Seon Cho, and Jong-Bok Park. 2014. 2013 GEM Korea Report. Gyeongnam National University of Science, and Technology and Korea Institute for Global Entrepreneurship. [반성식ㆍ서상구ㆍ송경모ㆍ박종해ㆍ차민석ㆍ조민선ㆍ박종복(2014), 「글로벌 기업가정신 연구 2013 연구보고서」, 경남과학기술대학교ㆍ(사)한국글로벌기업가정신연구원.]

Bammel, Steven, and Hwan-Joo Seo. 2017. “The Effects of Self-Employment Congestion on the Economic Outcomes of the Self-Employed and Wage Earners in the Korean Service Sector.” Journal of Industrial Innovation 33, no. 4: 145–174. [스티븐 밤멜ㆍ서환주(2017), “자영업 혼잡의 경제적 영향에 대한 분석: 서비스부분 자영업자와 임금근로자의 소득에 미치는 영향을 중심으로,” 산업혁신연구, 제33권 제4호, pp. 145∼174.]

Bammel, Steven, and Hwan-Joo Seo. 2019. “Analysis of Korean Service-Sector Self-Employment Using the Self-Employment Congestion Rate.” Journal of Industrial Innovation 35, no. 2: 61–89. [스티븐 밤멜ㆍ서환주(2019), “자영업 혼잡률 개념을 이용한 한국 서비스 자영업 분석,” 산업혁신연구, 제35권 제2호, pp. 61∼89.]

Bammel, Steven, and Hwan-Joo Seo. 2020. “A Multi-Criteria Study of Korean Self-Employment Weakness.” Journal of Industrial Innovation 36, no. 2: 111–134. [스티븐 밤멜ㆍ서환주(2020), “복수의 기준을 사용한 한국 자영업 영세성 분석,” 산업혁신연구, 제36권 제2호, pp. 111∼134.]

Barbieri, Paolo. 2003. “Social capital and self-employment: a network analysis experiment and several considerations” International Sociology 18, no. 4: 681–701.

Bateman, Milfred, and Ha-Joon Chang. 2009. “The Microfinance Illusion.” SSRN Electronic Journal, 10.2139/ssrn.2385174.

Baumol, William. 1967. “Macroeconomics of Unbalanced Growth: The Anatomy of Urban Crisis.” American Economic Review 57, no. 2: 415–426.

Bin, Bong-Sik, and Jung-Ki Park. 2002. “An Empirical Study on the Successful Factors of Small Business Start-Ups” Asia Pacific Journal of Small Business 24, no. 3 (September): 135–158. [빈봉식ㆍ박정기(2002), “소상공인 창업의 성공요인에 관한 실험적 연구,” 중소기업연구, 제24권 제3호 (2002년 9월), pp. 135∼158.]

Blanchflower, David G., & Andrew J. Oswald. 1998. “What Makes and Entrepreneur?” Journal of Labor Economy 16, no. 1: 26–60.

Blanchflower, David G. 2004. “Self-employment: More may not be better.” Swedish Economic Policy Review 11, no. 2: 15–73.

Blau, David M. 1987. “A Time-Series Analysis of Self-Employment in the United States.” Journal of Political Economy 95, no. 3 (June 1987): 445–467.

Bosma, Niels, and Donna Kelley. 2019. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2018/2019 Global Report. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor.

Boyer, Tristan, and Blazy, Règis. 2014. “Born to be alive? The survival of innovative and non-innovative French micro-start-ups.” Small Business Economics 42: 669–683.

Caballero, Ricardo J., and Mohamad L. Hammour. 1994. “The Cleansing Effect of Recessions.” The American Economic Review 84, no. 5 (December): 1350–68.

Caballero, Ricardo J., Takeo Hoshi, and Anil K. Kashyap. 2008. “Zombie Lending and Depressed Restructuring in Japan.” American Economic Review 98, no. 5: 1943–1977.

Carmona, Mónica, Emilio Congregado, and Antonio A. Golpe. 2012. “Comovement between self-employment and macroeconomic variables: evidence from Spain.” Sage Open April. doi: 10.1177/2158244012448665.

Carree, Martin, Andrè van Stel, Roy Thurik, and Sander Wennekers. 2002. “Economic development and business ownership: an analysis using data of 23 OECD countries in the period 1976–1996.” Small Business Economics 19, no. 3: 271–290.

Castellacci, Fulvio. 2008. “Technological paradigms, regimes and trajectories: Manufacturing and service industries in a new taxonomy of sectoral patterns of innovation.” Research Policy 37: 978–994.

Chang, Jang-Yee, Jae-Han Lee, Min-Seong Kim, and Yong-Ki Lee. 2014. “Effect of Foodservice Franchisee Perceived Justice on Emotion, Satisfaction, and Recontracting Intention.” Journal of Distribution and Management Research 17, no. 3 (June 30): 21–36. [장장이ㆍ이재한ㆍ김민성ㆍ이용기(2014), “외식프랜차이즈 가맹점의 지각된 공정성이 감정, 만족, 그리고 재계약의도에 미치는 영향,” 유통경영학회지, 제17권 제3호 (2014년 6월 30일), pp. 21∼36.]

Cheon, Byung-You. 2003. “Study of Selection of Self-Employment in Korea.” Korean Journal of Labor Economics 26, no. 3: 149–150. [전병유(2003), “자영업 선택의 결정 요인에 관한 연구,” 노동경제논집, 제26권 제3호, pp. 149∼150.]

Cho, Dong-Hun. 2013. “International Comparison of Determinants of Self-Employment: The Role of Industrial and Family Structure.” Korean Journal of Industrial Relations 23, no. 2: 127–146. [조동훈(2013), “자영업 결정요인 국제 비교 분석: 산업과 가족구조 효과,” 산업관계연구, 제23권 제2호, pp. 127~146.]

Choi, Byoung-Mohk. 1996. “Study of Koreans in Self-Employment in the United States.” Korea Journal of Population Studies 19, no. 2 (December): 139–173. [최병목(1996), “미국에서 한인 자영업에 관한 연구,” 한국인구학, 제19권 제2호 (1996년 12월), pp. 139∼173.]

Choi, Min. 2007. “New Business Models in the Information Economy: GDP and Case Studies in Korea.” (Master’s thesis, Korea University).

Cunningham, Wendy V., and William F. Maloney. 2001. “Heterogeneity among Mexico’s Microenterprises: An Application of Factor and Cluster Analysis.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 50, no. 1 (October): 131–156.

Dennis, William J. 1996. “Self-employment: When nothing else is available?” Journal of Labor Research 17, no. 4: 645–661.

Distribution Industry Development Act, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (Republic of Korea). [「유통산업발전법」, 산업통상자원부.]

Dollinger, Marc J. 1995. Entrepreneurship: strategies and resources, Austen Press.

Duncan, Otis D. 1965. “Social Origins of Salaried and Self-Employed Professional Workers.” Social Forces 44, no. 2: 186–189.

Evans, David S., and Linda S. Leighton. 1989. “Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship.” The American Economic Review 79, no. 3: 519–535.

Falco, Paolo, and Luke Haywood. 2016. “Entrepreneurship versus joblessness: Explaining the rise in self-employment” Journal of Development Economics 118: 245–265.

Gartner, William B. 1989. “’Who Is an Entrepreneur?’ Is the Wrong Question” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 13: 47–68.

Gerber, Michael E. 1995. The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don’t Work and What to Do About It. HarperBusiness.

Ghatak, Maitreesh, Massimo Morelli, and Tomas Sjöström. 2007. “Entrepreneurial talent, occupational choice, and trickle up policies.” Journal of Economic Theory 137, no. 1 (November)): 27–48.

Gopinath, Gita, Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan, Loukas Karabarbounis, and Carolina Villegas-Sanchez. 2015. “Capital Allocation and Productivity in South Europe.” NBR Working Paper, No. 21453.

Government Organization Act, Ministry of Interior and Safety (Republic of Korea). [「정보조직법」, 행정안전부.]

Granovetter, Mark. 1973. “The Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology 78, no. 6 (May): 1360–1380.

Gunther, Isabel, and Andrey Launov. 2012. “Informal employment in developing countries: Opportunity or last resort?” Journal of Development Economics 97: 88–98.

Gweon, Woo-Hyeon, Cheong-Seong Park, Dong-Hoon Cho, and Geul Bang. 2014. Forecast of Employment Structure and Manpower Demand in Self-Employment. Korea Employment Information Service, Seoul: Saenggag Suimpyo: Human Culture Arirang. [권우현ㆍ박청성ㆍ조동훈ㆍ방글(2014), 「자영업의 고용구조와 인력수요 전망」, 한국고용정보원, 서울: 생각쉽표: 휴먼컬처아리랑.]

Henley, Andrew. 1999. “Being Your Own Boss: Entrepreneurial Choice, Earnings and Employment Creation in 1990s Britain.” (conference paper. European Association of Labour Economists Conference Regensberg, Germany, September 23–26).

Henrekson, Magnus. 2004. “Comment on David G. Blanchflower: Is More Self-Employment Good or Bad?” Swedish Economic Policy Review 11, no. 2.

Hipp, Lena, Janine Bernhardt, and Jutta Allmendinger. 2015. “Institutions and the prevalence of nonstandard employment.” Socio-Economic Review 13, no. 2: 351–377.

Hong, Min-Gi, and Sang-Bong Oh. 2018. Analysis of Dynamic Changes in Self-Employment Management Circumstances (Policy Study 2018-06, Korea Labor Institute). [홍민기ㆍ오상봉(2018), 「자영업 경영상황의 동태적 변화 분석」, 정책연구 2018-06호, 한국노동연구원.]

Hughes, Karen D. 2003. “Pushed or pulled? Women’s entry into self‐employment and small business ownership” Gender, Work & Organization 10, no. 4: 433–454.

Industrial Development Act, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (Republic of Korea). [「산업발전법」, 산업통상자원부.]

Jang, Ki-Jin, and Hyuk-Jun Choi. 2014. “Study on the Innovation Capability Strengthening Plan for Manufacture-Based Knowledge Service Industries.” e-Business Studies 15, no. 4 (August): 215–235. [장기진ㆍ최혁준(2014), “제조기반 지식서비스산업의 혁신역량 강화방안”, 「e-비즈니스연구」 제15권 제4호, pp. 215~235.]

Jeon, Byeong-Mok. 2005. “Changes in Income Tax Burden and Self-Employment Sector Size.” Public Finance Forum (May): 24–43. [전병목(2005), “소득세 부담과 자영업자 규모 변화,” 재정포럼, 2005년 5월호, pp. 24∼43.]

Jeon, In-Woo, Jeong-Sik Yoo, Seong-Ho Choi, Chang-Min Lee, and Seong-Mi Yoon. 2005. “Policy Challenges and Improvement Plans for Strengthening Micro Enterprise Competitiveness.” (Basic Research 05-11, Korea Small Business Institute). [전인우ㆍ유정식ㆍ최성호ㆍ이창민ㆍ윤성미(2005), 「소상공인 경쟁력 강화를 위한 정책과제와 개선방안」, 기본연구 05-11, 중소기업연구원.]

Jeon, In-Woo, and Seong-Ho Choi. 2006. “Determinants of Self-Employment Sector Share in OECD Economies and Policy Implications Thereof.” Asia Pacific Journal of Small Business 28, no. 3: 165–181. [전인우ㆍ최성호(2006), “OECD 회원국 경제에서의 자영업 부문 비중 결정요인과 정책 시사점,” 중소기업연구, 제28권 제3호, pp. 165~181.]

Jeon, In-Woo, and Wan-Soo Jeong. 2014. “Past, Present, and Future of Self-Employment Policy.“ KOSBI SME Focus #14-12 (Nov. 10, 2014). [전인우ㆍ정완수(2014), “자영업 정책의 과거, 현재 그리고 미래,” KOSBI 중소기업 포커스, 제14-12호 (2014년 11월 10일).]

Johnson, William R. 1978. “A Theory of Job-Shopping.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 22 (May): 261–278.

Joint Public Agencies. 2016. Measures to Strengthen the Competitiveness of Micro-Enterprises. November 3, 2016. Economic Ministerial Meeting 16-17-2. [관계부처 합동(2016), 「소상공인 경쟁력 강화방안」, 2016년 11월 3일, 경제관계장관회의 16-17-2.]

Joint Public Agencies. 2018a. Support Measures for Micro-Enterprises and Self-Employed Workers. August 22, 2018. [관계부처 합동(2018a), 「소상공인ㆍ자영업자 지원대책」, 2018년 8월 22일.]

Joint Public Agencies. 2018b. Job and Income Support Measures for Low-Income Groups. July 18, 2018. Economic Ministerial Meeting 18–11. [관계부처 합동(2018b), 「저소득층 일자리ㆍ소득지원 대책」, 2018년 7월 18일, 경제관계장관회의 18–11.]

Joo, Hyun, Sook-Kyung Kim, Seok-Il Hong, Jong-Ho Kim, and Shin-Wook Kang. 2010. Analysis of the Optimal Self-Employment Share and Study of Policy Challenges (Policy Study 10-07), Small Enterprise Development Agency, and Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade). [주현ㆍ김숙경ㆍ홍석일ㆍ김종호ㆍ강신욱 (2010), 「자영업 비중의 적정성 분석 및 정책과제 연구」, 소상공인시장진흥공단 (구: 소상공인진흥원)ㆍ산업연구원, 정책연구, 10-07호.]

Kang, Chang-Hui, and Gyeong-Joon Yoo. 2018. “An International Comparison of Determinants of Self-Employment Participation: Focusing on Social Policy Factors.” Journal of Budget and Policy 7, no. 2 (December): 129–158. [강창희ㆍ유경준(2018), “자영업자 비중 결정요인의 국제비교: 사회정책적 요인을 중심으로,” 예산정책연구, 제7권 제2호 (2018년 12월), pp. 129∼158.]

Kang, Ji-Soo, Hyun-Bae Chun, and Jang-Hee Cho. 2017. “Entry, Exit and Productivity Growth in the Service Sector: Evidence from Industries with the Restriction of Excessive Entry.” Korean Economic Journal 65, no. 4: 129–157. [강지수ㆍ전현배ㆍ조장희(2017), “진입퇴출과 서비스업 생산성 성장: 과밀창업 억제 대상 자영업을 중심으로,” 경제학연구, 제65집 제4호, pp. 129∼157.]

Keum, Jae-Ho, and Joon-Mo Cho. 2000. “Theory and Empirical Analysis on Self-Employment Selection.” Korean Journal of Labor Economics 23 (February): 81–108. [금재호ㆍ조준모(2000), “자영업의 선택에 관한 이론 및 실증분석,” 노동경제논집, 제23권 (2000년 2월), pp. 81∼108.]

Keum, Jae-Ho, Jae-Woo Ryoo, Byeong-Yoo Jeon, and Kang-Shik Choi. 2003. “Current Conditions and Challenges of the Self-Employment Labor Market” (Research Report 2003-17, Korea Labor Institute). [금재호ㆍ류재우ㆍ전병유ㆍ최강식(2003), 「자영업 노동시장의 현상과 과제」, 연구보고서 2003-17, 한국노동연구원.]

Keum, Jae-Ho, Mi-Rye Yoon, Joon-Mo Cho, and Gang-Shik Choi. 2006. “Actual Conditions and Policy Challenges of Self-Employment” (Policy Study 2006-10, Korea Labor Institute). [금재호ㆍ윤미례ㆍ조준모ㆍ최강식(2006), 「자영업의 실태와 정책과제」, 정책연구, 2006-10호, 한국노동연구원.]

Keum, Jae-Ho, and In-Sill Yi. 2011. “Analysis on Sales and Income of Self-Employment.” Journal of Korean Economics Studies 29, no. 4 (December): 103–140. [금재호ㆍ이인실(2011), “자영업 매출과 소득의 결정요인 분석,” 한국경제연구, 제29권 제4호 (2011년 12월), pp. 103∼140.]

Kihlstrom, Richard E., and Jean-Jacques Laffont. 1979. “A General Equilibrium Theory of Firm Formation Based on Risk-Aversion.” Journal of Political Economy 87, no. 4 (August 1979): 719-48.

Kim, Chul-Min, and Seung-Man Shin. 2015. “A Conceptual Study of Government Support Policy for the Micro-Enterprises and Self-Employed Workers: A Critical Perspective.” Journal of Industrial Innovation 31, no. 4: 175–205. [김철민ㆍ신승만(2015), “소상공인 및 자영업자 지원정책에 관한 소고: 비판적 고찰,” 산업혁신연구, 제31권 제4호, pp. 175~205.]

Kim, Lin. 2019. “A Legal Perspective on Seeking Social Justice to Overcome the Crisis of Small and Dependent Self-Employed.” Labor Law Review 46 (March): 69–101. [김린(2019), “영세종속적 자영업자의 위기극복을 위한 사회정의의 모색: 법적 관점에서의 시론,” 노동법연구, 제46권 (2019년 3월), pp. 69∼101.]

Kim, Mi-Kyung, Ki-Joon Kwon, and Kyung-Il Chung. 2014. “The Influence of Franchisers’ Leadership Types in the Food Service Industry on Relational Commitment of Franchisees and the Moderating Effect of Leader Member Exchange (LMX).” Journal of Foodservice Management Society of Korea 17, no. 4 (August): 295–319. [김미경ㆍ권기준ㆍ정경일(2014), “외식 프랜차이즈 본부의 리더십 유형이 가맹점과의 관계결속에 미치는 영향과 리더-멤버 교환관계(LMX)의 조절효과,” 외식경영학회, 제17권 제4호 (2014년 8월), pp. 295∼319.]

Kim, Seong-Tae, Myeong-Gyu Kim, and Byeong-In Im. 2014. “Is Franchising a Way Out for the Self-Employed?: Focusing on the Restaurant Business.” Asia Pacific Journal of Small Business 36, no. 3 (September): 79–103. [김성태ㆍ김명규ㆍ임병인(2014), “프랜차이즈, 자영업자의 활로인가?: 음식점 업종을 중심으로,” 중소기업연구, 제36권 제3호 (2014년 9월), pp. 79∼103.]

Kim, Woo-Hyoung. 2017. “The Impact of Self-Employment on the National Economy.” The Journal of Small Business Innovation 20, no. 1: 19–33.

Kim, Woo-Yung. 2000. “Analysis of the Comparative Advantages of Employment Form and Determinants of Becoming Self-Employed.” Korean Journal of Labor Economics 23 (S) (March): 55–80. [김우영(2000), “취업형태의 비교우위와 자영업자의 결정요인에 대한 분석,” 노동경제논집, 제23권 (S) (2000년 3월), pp. 55∼80.]

Kim, Woo-Yung, and Eung-Kyu Kim. 2001. “A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction Between the Self-Employed and Paid-Employed in Korea.” Asia Pacific Journal of Small Business 23, no. 3 (September): 29–54. [김우영ㆍ김응규(2001), “자영업주와 임금근로자의 직업만족도 비교분석,” 중소기업연구, 제23권 제3호 (2001년 9월), pp. 29∼54.]

Kim, Woo-Yung. 2009. “Policy Challenges Related to Self-Employed Homogeneity and Vulnerable Self-Employed.” (2009 Economics Joint Conference, pp. 230–269). [김우영(2009), “자영업자의 이질성과 취약자영계층에 대한 정책과제,” 2009 경제학 공동학술대회, pp. 230∼269.]

Knight, Frank H. 1942. “Profit and Entrepreneurial Functions.” The Journal of Economic History 2 (December): 126–132.

Ko, Ga-Yeong, and Geun-Tae Lee. 2012. “Start-Ups Concentrated in Low-Value-Added Businesses Make Conditions Worse in the Self-Employment Economy.“ LG Business Insights July 11: 17–26. [고가영ㆍ이근태(2012), “저부가가치에 몰리는 창업 자영업 경기 더 악화시킨다,” LG Business Insights, 2012년 7월 11일, pp. 17∼26.]

Korea Federation of SMEs. 2012. Current SME Conditions in 2012. Seoul: Korea Federation of SMEs. [중소기업중앙회(2012), “2012년 중소기업 현황,” 서울: 중소기업중앙회.]

Korea Labor Institute (by year). Korea Labor & Income Panel Study. [한국노동연구원(각 년도), 「한국노동패널조사」.]

Korean Statistical Information Service (KOSIS). 2016. “Services Income Structure.” (website accessed January 29, 2016). [국가통계포털(2016), “서비스 수입의 구조,” url: (2016년 1월 29일 접근).]

Lee, Byeong-Hee, Chan-Im Park, Sang-Bong Oh, Byeong-Gu Kang, and Sook-Gyeong Kim. 2016. Self-Employment Problems and Social Protection (Research Report 2016-02, Korea Labor Institute). [이병희ㆍ박찬임ㆍ오상봉ㆍ강병구ㆍ김숙경(2016), 「자영업 문제와 사회적 보호」, 한국노동연구원.]

Lee, Byoung-Hoon, and Jae-Yeol Shin. 2011. “Study on Social Consciousness of the Self-Employed in South Korea.” Economy and Society Fall (Consecutive Vol. 92): 247–274. [이병훈ㆍ신재열(2011), “자영자의 계층의식에 관한 연구,” 경제와사회, 2011년 겨울호(통권 제92호), pp. 247∼274.]

Lee, Chae-Weon, Byeong-Heon Lee, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Choon-Woo Lee, Si-Woo Kang, Seong-Hyeon Cho, Moon-Seon Kim, Mi-Ae Kim, and Hye-Ram Kim. 2017. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2017: Korea Report Korea Entrepreneurship Foundation. (이채원ㆍ이병헌ㆍ김도현ㆍ이춘우ㆍ강시우ㆍ조성현ㆍ김문선ㆍ김미애ㆍ김혜람(2017), 「글로벌 기업가정신 연구(GEM) 2017 한국보고서」, 한국청년기업가정신센터.)

Lee, Jae-Hyeong. 2012. “Conditions for Micro Business Operators.” KDI Focus August 9 (Consecutive Vol. 20). [이재형(2012), “영세사업자의 실태,” KDI Focus, 2012년 8월 9일 (통권 제20호).]

Lee, Ji-Hoon, and Hwan-Joo Seo. 2014. “Exploratory Research on the Diversity of Innovation Activity by Korean Service-Sector Enterprises.” Korean Journal of EU Studies 19, no. 1: 37–66. [이지훈ㆍ서환주(2014), “한국과 EU의 서비스산업 유형별 혁신활동 다양성의 비교연구,” EU학연구, 19(1), pp. 37∼66.]

Lee, Ji-Hoon. 2015. “A Study on the Schumpeterian Hypotheses in Accordance with the Type of Innovation Activities: Service Industry in Korea.” (PhD dissertation, Hanyang University). [이지훈(2015), “혁신활동 유형에 따른 슘페터 가설 연구: 한국 서비스산업을 중심으로,” 한양대학교 대학원, 박사논문.]

Lee, Mun-Hee, Kwang-Ji Kim, and Ki-Yong Park. 2014. “Influence of a Franchisor’s Franchise Package on Franchisee Performance, Satisfaction and Contract Renewal Intention: Focused on the Food Service Industry.” Journal of Foodservice Management Society of Korea 17, no. 3 (June): 261–278. [이문희ㆍ김광지ㆍ박기용(2014), “가맹본부의 프랜차이즈 패키지가 가맹점사업자의 성과와 만족, 재계약의도에 미치는 영향,” 외식경영연구 (2014년 6월), 제17권 제3호, pp. 261∼278.]

Lee, Seung-Ryeol, Jong-In Kim, Chan-Im Park, Deok-Jae Lee, and Min-Gi Hong. 2009. Self-Employment Labor Market Research (II) (Research Report 2009-07, Korea Labor Institute). [이승렬ㆍ김종인ㆍ박찬임ㆍ이덕재ㆍ홍민기(2009), 「자영업 노동시장 연구 (II)」, 연구보고서 2009-07, 한국노동연구원.]

Lee, Seung-Ryeol. 2018a. “Self-Employment Conditions and Policy Challenges” Labor Review October: 36–59. [이승렬(2018a), “자영업 현황과 정책과제,” 노동리뷰, 10월호, pp. 36∼59.]

Lee, Seung-Ryeol. 2018b. “Re-Thinking the Self-Employment Problem.” (Collection of Papers Presented at the Academic Seminar Held to Commemorate the 30th Anniversary of the Founding of the Korea Labor Institute. Korea Labor Institute: 47–71). [이승렬(2018b), “자영업 문제를 다시 생각해본다,” 한국노동연구원 개원 30주년 기념세미나 논문집, pp. 47∼71.]

Lee, Sung-Kyun. 2006. “Social Capital and Income Levels of the Self-Employed in Korea.” Korean Journal of Sociology 40, no. 5 (October): 178–206. [이성균(2006), “한국 자영업자의 사회적 자본과 소득수준,” 한국사회학, 제40집 제5호, pp. 178∼206.]

Lee, Weon-Jae. 2017. “Paris Baguette Pushes Out Innovation.” The Hankyoreh October 14 (Sesang Ilkgi section). [이원재(2017), “[세상 읽기] 파리바게뜨가 밀어낸 혁신,” 한겨레, 2017년 10월 14일.]

Lee, Yeong-Hoon, ed. 2014. The Korean Market Economy System. 3rd printing. Seoul: Seoul National University Press. [이영훈 역음(2014), 「한국형 시장 경제체제」, 3쇄, 서울, 서울대학교출판문화원.]

Lucas, Robert E. 1978. “On the Size Distribution of Business Firms.” The Bell Journal of Economics 9, no. 2 (Autumn): 508–523.

McGowan, Muge Adalet, Dan Andrews, and Valentine Millot. 2017. “The Walking Dead? Zombie Firms and Productivity Performance in OECD Countries.” (Economics Department Working Papers, No. 1372, OECD).

Miller, Robert A. 1984. “Job Matching and Occupational Choice.” Journal of Political Economy 92, no. 6 (December): 1086–1120.

Ministry of Knowledge Economy. 2010. 2010 White Paper on Knowledge Service Industry (Ministry of Knowledge Economy and National IT Industry Promotion Agency). [지식경제부(2010), 「2010 지식서비스산업 백서」, 지식경제부ㆍ정보통신산업진흥원.]

Ministry of Knowledge Economy. 2012. “Strategy for Knowledge Service Industry Development by Discovering New Services to Grow Along with Manufacturing” (working paper). [지식경제부(2012), 「제조업 동반성장형 신서비스 발굴을 통한 지식서비스산업 발전전략」.]

Ministry of SMEs and Startups. 2019. “Starting to Improve the Statistics on Micro-Enterprises: Announcement of the 2018 Trial Survey Results” (news release dated February 27, 2019). [중소벤처기업부 (구:소상공인시장진흥공단)(2019), “소상공인 통계 개선 착수, ‘2018 시험조사’ 결과 발표”.]

Moon, Sun-Ung, and In-Woo Jun. 2011. “Empirical Study of Estimation on the Optimal Size of Self-Employed in Korea using OECD Data: Focusing on the Sectors of Wholesale/Retail & Hotel/Restaurant.” Journal of International Area Studies 15, no. 1 (March): 241–266. [문선웅ㆍ전인우(2011), “OECD 회원국 자료를 활용한 한국의 자영업 적정규모 추정에 관한 실증연구: 도소매업 및 음식숙박업을 중심으로,” 국제지역연구, 제15권 제1호 (2011년 3월), pp. 241∼266.]

Noh, Hwa-Bong, Seon-Woong Moon, In-Woo Jeon, Song-Dong Park, Geun-Ha Seo, and Yoon-Hyeong Nam. 2009. “Estimation of the Optimal Size of the Self-Employment Sector: Focusing on Wholesale/Retail and Food/Accommodation Businesses” (working paper, Korea Small & Micro Business Development Agency, December). [노화봉ㆍ문선웅ㆍ전인우ㆍ박송동ㆍ서근하ㆍ남윤형(2009), “적정 자영업주 규모 추산: 도소매업 및 음식숙박업을 중심으로,” 소상공인진흥원 (2009년 12월).]

OECD. 2014a. OECD Factbook 2014: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics. Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD. 2014b. SME Statistics: Towards a More Systematic Statistical Measurement of SME Behaviour. (working paper, 2nd Conference of Ministers Responsible for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)).

OECD. 2015a. Entrepreneurship at a Glance 2015. Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD. 2015b. National Accounts of OECD Countries. Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD. 2015c. “Better Policies Series – Korea: Policy priorities for a dynamic, inclusive and creative economy” (working paper).

OECD. 2015d. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2015: Innovation for growth and society, Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD. 2019. OECD Labor Force Statistics 2019. Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD. Employment and Labor Market Statistics (by year), url:

OECD. National Accounts at a Glance (by year), url:

OECD/Eurostat. 2005. Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data. 3rd Edition, The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities. Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD-WTO. TiVA Database (by year), url:

OhmyNews, “The Korea Federation of Micro Enterprise Finally Weighs Anchor,” May 7, 2014, Society section. [OhmyNews, “소상공인연합회, 마침내 닻 올리다,” 5월 7일 사회, 2014.]

Park, Chang-Gui. 2016. “Characteristics of Self-Employment in Korea.” Journal of Economics Studies 3, no. 1: 163–191. [박창귀(2016), “우리나라 자영업의 과도기적 특성 연구,” 경제연구, 제3집, 제1호, pp. 163∼191.]

Park, Jeong-Gi. 2002. “Empirical Study on the Success Factors of a Small Business Starting-Up.” Collection of Papers from the Spring Conference of the Korean Association of Small Business Studies 2002, no. 0: 121–140. [박정기(2002), “소상공인 창업의 성공요인에 관한 실증적 연구,” 한국중소기업학회 춘계학술발표논문집, 제2002권 제0호, pp. 121~140.]

Park, Sung-Uk. 2010. “Economic Ripple Effect Analysis of the Knowledge Service Industry.” Journal of Industrial Innovation 26, no. 3: 65–87. [박성욱(2010), “지식서비스산업의 경제적 파급효과 분석,” 산업혁신연구, 제26권 제3호, pp. 65~87.]

Parker, Simon C., and Martin T. Robson. 2004. “Explaining International Variations in Self-Employment: Evidence from a Panel of OECD Countries.” Southern Economic Journal 71, no. 2: 287-301.

Pavitt, Keith. 1984. “Sectoral patterns of technical change: towards a taxonomy and a theory” Research Policy 13, no. 6: 343–373.

Poschke, Markus. 2010. “’Entrepreneurs out of Necessity’: A Snapshot.” IZA Discussion Papers, No. 4893, Institute for the Study of Labor (April).

Poschke, Markus. 2013. “Who becomes an entrepreneur? Labor market prospects and occupational choice.” Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 37, no. 3: 693-710.

Ryoo, Jae-Woo, and Ho-Young Choi. 1999. “Study of the Korean Self-Employment Sector.” Korean Journal of Labor Economics 22, no. 1 (June): 109–140. [류재우ㆍ최호영(1999), “우리나라 자영업 부문에 관한 연구,” 노동경제논집, 제22권 제1호 (1999년 6월), pp. 109∼140.]

Ryoo, Jae-Woo, and Ho-Young Choi. 2000. “Labor Market Dynamics in the Self-Employed Sector in Korea.” Korean Journal of Labor Economics 23, no. 1 (June): 137–165. [류재우ㆍ최호영(2000), “자영업부문을 중심으로 한 노동력의 유동,” 노동경제논집, 제23권 (1) (2000년 6월), pp. 137∼165.]

Ryoo, Jae-Woo. 2004. “Earnings Opportunity in the Self-Employment Sector and Worker Self-Selection.“ Korean Economic Journal 52, no. 2: 5–32. [류재우(2004), “자영업 부문의 소득기회와 선택성,” 경제학연구, 제52집 제2호, pp. 5∼32.]

Ryu, Deok-Hyeon, Seon Goh, and Seung-Hoon Baek. 2015. “Study on the Scale of Korean Self-Employment Based on International Comparison” (2015 Research and Service Report, National Assembly Budget Office). [류덕현ㆍ고선ㆍ백승훈(2015), “국제비교를 통한 우리나라 자영업 규모에 대한 연구,”2015년도 연구용역보고서, 국회예산정책처.]

Sanders, Cynthia K. 2002. “The Impact of Microenterprise Assistance Programs: A Comparative Study of Program Participants, Nonparticipants, and Other Low-Wage Workers.” Social Service Review (June): 321–341.

Schuetze, Herb J. 2000. “Taxes, Economic Conditions and Recent Trends in Male Self-Employment: A Canada-US Comparison.” Labour Economics 7, no. 5: 507–544.

Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1934. The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest and the Business Cycle. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1942. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy New York, NY: Routledge.

Seo, Hwan-Joo, Young-Soo Lee, and Jae-Joon Hur. 2007. “A Comparative Analysis of Competitiveness in Services of OECD Countries, and Implications for Korea.” Korean Journal of EU Studies 12, no. 1: 5–47. [서환주ㆍ이영수ㆍ허재준(2007), “OECD 국가의 서비스업 경쟁력 비교분석과 한국에의 시사점,” EU학연구, 제12권 제1호, pp. 5∼47.]

Seo, Hwan-Joo. 2015. “Current Conditions of Service-Sector Competitiveness in Major OECD Countries” (unpublished manuscript, Hancom Hangul file). [서환주(2015), “OECD 주요 국가의 서비스 경쟁력 현황,” 미발표 논문. 한컴 한글 파일.]

Seo, Jeong-Hee, and Kyung-Ha Park. 2016. “Errors in Estimations of Nonstandard Worker Scale by an Empirical Analysis of Bogus Self-Employment in Korea.” Korea Social Policy Review 23, no. 3: 49–77. [서정희ㆍ박경하(2016), “한국의 가짜 자영업 추정을 통해서 본 비정규 근로자 규모의 오류,” 한국사회정책, 제23권 제3호, pp. 49∼77.]

Seong, Jae-Min. 2019. “Characteristics of Self-Employment Entry and Income: Focusing on KLIPS Data.” Korea Review (June): 19–33. [성재민(2019), “자영업으로의 진입과 소득 특성: 한국노동패널조사를 중심으로,” 한국리뷰, (2019년 6월) pp. 19∼33.]

Shin, Dong-Joo, and Pae-Kun Choi. 2018. “The Cause of the Increase of Small Self-Employed in Korea: The Relationship Between Deindustrialization and Small Self-Employed.” Journal of Industrial Economics and Business 31, no. 5: 1831–1856. [신동주ㆍ최배근(2018), “우리나라 영세자영업자 증가의 원인: 탈공업화와 영세자영업자의 관계를 중심으로,” 산업경제연구, 제31권 제5호, pp. 1831∼1856.]

Small Enterprise and Market Service. 2019. “Estimation of the Optimal Size of the Self-Employment Sector: Focusing on Wholesale/Retail and Food/Accommodation Businesses.” Small Enterprise and Market Services. [소상공인시장진흥공단 (구: 소상공인진흥원)(2019), 「적정 자영업주 규모 추산: 도소매업 및 음식숙박업 중심으로」.]

Small Enterprise Development Agency. 2013. “Report on the 2013 National Microenterprise Survey (report of final results, Small Enterprise Development Agency).” [소상공인시장진흥공단 (구: 소상공인진흥원)(2013), “2013년 전국 소상공인 실태조사 보고서,” 최종 결과보고서.]

Miozzo, Marcela, and Luc Soete. 2001. “Internationalization of services: a technological perspective.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 67 (June): 159–185.

Song, Ki-Ok, and Jae-Kun Park. 2014. “Study of the Effects of Attributes of Restaurant Franchise Contracts on Trust and Re-Contract Intention.” Journal of Foodservice Management Society of Korea 17, no. 4 (August): 343–365. [송기옥ㆍ박재근(2014), “외식프랜차이즈 가맹본부의 계약속성이 신뢰와 재계약 의도에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구,” 「외식경영학회」, 제17권 제4호 (2014년 8월), pp. 343~365.]

Special Act on the Designation of Types of Business Suitable for Livelihood of Micro Enterprises. Small and Medium Business Administration (Republic of Korea; currently: Ministry of SMEs and Startups). 「소상공인 생계형 적합업종 지정에 관한 특별법」, 중소기업청 (현: 중소벤처기업부).]

Special SME Committee. 2005. “Comprehensive Plan for Weak Self-Employed Workers.” [중소기업특별위원회(2005), “영세 자영업자 종합대책.”]

Statistics Korea. Korean Standard Industrial Classification (KSIC). 8th and 9th Revision. [한국표준산업분류(KSIC), 통계청, 제8차 개정 및 제9차 개정.]

Statistics Korea. Economic Census (by year). [통계청(각 년도), 「경제총조사」.]

Statistics Korea. Economically Active Population Survey (by year). [통계청(각 년도), 「경제활동인구조사」.]

Statistics Korea. National Accounts (by year). [통계청(각 년도), 「국민계정」.]

Statistics Korea. National Survey of Business Enterprises (by year). (통계청(각 년도), 「전국사업체조사」.)

Stevens, Heather M., and Mark D. Partridge. 2011. “Do Entrepreneurs Enhance Economic Growth in Lagging Regions?” Growth and Change 42, no. 4: 431–465.

Suh, Geun-Ha, Chang-Soo Suh, and Sung-Wook Yoon. 2010. “A Study on Policy Support Models for Korean Small Businessman’s Systematization and Chain Recognition.” Asia Pacific Journal of Small Business 32, no. 3: 155–175. [서근하ㆍ서창수ㆍ윤성욱(2010), “한국 소상공인 조직화와 체인 인식도에 관한 정책 지원 모델 연구,” 「중소기업연구」, 제32권 제3호, pp. 155~175.]

Suh, Geun-Ha, Kwang-No Lee, and Sung-Wook Yoon. 2011. “An Empirical Study and Policy Implications Regarding Correlations of Korean Small Businessman’s Perception of Systematization Using Cluster Analysis” Journal of Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society 12, no. 3: 1157–1164. [서근하ㆍ이광노ㆍ윤성욱(2011), “한국 소상공인 조직화 인식도 상호관계에 관한 실증적 연구와 정책적 시사점: 군집분석을 이용한 접근,” 「한국산학기술학회논문지」, 제12권 제3호, pp. 1157~1164.]

Suh, Geun-Ha, Chang-Soo Suh, and Sung-Wook Yoon. 2013. “Development of Estimations of the Proper Size of Korean Small Businesses and Scheme for Advancement of Management Structure: Focused on the Comparison of OECD Countries.” Asia Pacific Journal of Small Business 35, no. 3 (September): 111–132. [서근하ㆍ서창수ㆍ윤성욱(2013), “한국 소상공인사업체 적정규모 추정법 개발과 경영구조 선진화 방안에 관한 연구: OECD 국가와 비교를 중심으로,” 중소기업연구, 제35권 제3호 (2013년 9월), pp. 111∼132.]

Suh, Geun-Ha, You-Tay Lee, Hwa-Bong Noh, and Jum-Suk Ryu. 2014. “Study of the Influence of Excessive Competition Among Small Enterprises on Rate of Entry and Discontinuance of Business” The Journal of Small Business Innovation 17, no. 2: 13–32.

Suh, Geun-Ha, Seong-Ho Kim, and Chang-Soo Suh. 2019. “A Study on Improvement Methods of Forecasting Micro-Enterprise and Self-Employment Economic Trends in Korea” (from a collection of papers presented at the Korea Distribution Science Association Academic Conference: 123–127). [서근하ㆍ김성호ㆍ서창수(2019), “한국의 소상공인 및 자영업 경기동향 예측 개선방향에 관한 연구,” 한국유통과학회 학술대회 논문짐, pp. 123∼127.]

Suh, Jae-Man. 2011. Current Conditions and Policy Direction for Self-Employed Workers, National Assembly Budget Office: Seoul. [서재만(2011), 「자영업자 현황 및 정책 방향」, 국회예산정책처, 서울.]

Sung, Jai-Mie, and Jo-Yup Ahn. 2002. “Determinants of Economic Performance and Subjective Assessment of Self-Employment.” Quarterly Journal of Labor Policy 2, no. 3: 101–136. [성지미ㆍ안주엽(2002), “자영업의 경제적 성과 및 주관적 평가의 결정요인,” 노동정책연구, 제2권 제3호, pp. 101∼136.]

Sung, Jai-Mie, and Jo-Yup Ahn. 2004. “Self-Employment as Bridge Employment.” Journal of Labour Economics 27, no. 2: 1–27. [성지미ㆍ안주엽(2004), “자영업과 가교일자리,” 노동경제논집, 제27권 제2호, pp. 1∼27.]

Suh, Yong-Gu, and Suk-Kyung Kim. 2012. “Current Conditions of Retail Micro-Enterprises Analyzed Through International Comparison, and Policy Implications.” Journal of Channel and Retailing 17, no. 5: 39–57. [서용구ㆍ김숙경(2012), “국제 비교를 통한 소매업 소상공인 현황과 정책적 시사점,” 유통연구, 제17권 제5호, pp. 39∼57.]

Taylor, Mark P. 1996. “Earnings, independence or unemployment: why become self‐employed?” Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 58, no. 2 (May): 253–266.

Thurik, A. Roy, Martin A. Carree, André van Stel, and David B. Audretsch. 2008. “Does self-employment reduce unemployment?” Journal of Business Venturing 23, no. 6: 673–686.

Value-Added Tax Act. Ministry of Economy and Finance (Republic of Korea). [「부가가치세법」. 기획재정부]

Vence, Xavier, and Alexandre Trigo. 2009. “Diversity of innovation patterns in services” The Service Industries Journal 29, no. 12: 1635–1657.

Williams, Colin C. 2007. “The Nature of Entrepreneurship in the Informal Sector: Evidence from England.” Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship 12, no. 2: 239–254.