The following list is the complete list of cited works in the PhD dissertation.

For Korean-language references, I have provided an English-language translation first, followed by the Korean reference in parentheses. On the other hand, Korean translations have not been provided of English references.

When translating Korean titles to English, I have referenced an English translation provided by the authors, when available. But if the translation provided was incomplete or the phrasing overly unnatural, I have made changes to better reflect the Korean title in idiomatic English.

For consistency, Korean names have been presented family name first and given name second in the references. However, in the body citations with Korean names, I have listed last names first followed by initials of given names.

Acs, Zoltan. 2006. “How is entrepreneurship good for economic growth?” Innovations: technology, governance, globalization 1, no. 1: 97–107.

Acs, Zoltan, & David Audretsch. 1987. “Innovation, market structure, and firm size.” The Review of Economics and Statistics 69, no. 4: 567–574.

Act on Special Measures for Support of Small Enterprises and Micro Enterprises. Small and Medium Business Administration (Republic of Korea; currently: Ministry of SMEs and Startups). [「소기업 및 소상공인 지원을 위한 특별조치법」, 중소기업청 (현: 중소벤처기업부).]

Act on the Protection of and Support for Micro Enterprises. Small and Medium Business Administration (Republic of Korea; currently: Ministry of SMEs and Startups). [「소상공인 보호 및 지원에 관한 법률」, 중소기업청 (현: 중소벤처기업부).]

An, Sang-Bong, and Yong-Joon Shin. 2017. “The Current Status and Development Measures of Start-Up Support System of Korea.” Journal of Business History 32, no. 2 (Consecutive Vol. 82): 149–172. [안상봉ㆍ신용준(2017), “우리나라 창업지원제도 현황과 발전방안,” 경영사학, 제32집 제2호 (통권 82호), pp. 149∼172.]

Andersson, Pernilla, & Eskil Wadensjo. 2007. “Do the unemployed become successful entrepreneurs? A comparison between the unemployed, inactive and wage-earners.” Institute for the Study of Labor, IZA Discussion Papers, No. 2402.

Apte, Uday, Uday Karmarkar, and Hiranya Nath. 2008. “Information Services in the U.S. Economy: Value, Jobs, and Management Implications.” California Management Review 50, no. 3: 12–30.

Aquilina, Matteo, Rainer Klump, and Carlo Pietrobelli. 2006. “Factor Substitution, Average Firm Size and Economic Growth.” Small Business Economics 26, no. 3 (April): 203–214.

Arnold, Nancy and Rural Institute, University of Montana (2014), “Rapid Literature Review of Self-Employment Research.” Employment, Paper 33.

Bae, Jin-Sung, Joo-Wan Park, and Hyeok-Jun Yun. 2018. 2018 Micro Enterprise Finances On-Site Survey Report. Korea Federation of Credit Guarantee Foundations. [배진성ㆍ윤혁준ㆍ박주완(2018), “2018 소상공인 금융실태조사 보고서,” 신용보증재단중앙회.]

Bahn, Sung-sik, Sang-Gu Seo, Kyung-Mo Song, Dong-Hwan Cho, Jong-Hae Park, Min-Seok Cha, & Jong-Bok Park. 2013a. GEM Korea 2012 Report. Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology and Small and Medium Business Administration, Jinju.

Bahn, Sung-sik, Sang-Gu Seo, Kyung-Mo Song, Dong-Hwan Cho, Jong-Hae Park, Min-Seok Cha, and Jong-Bok Park.. 2013b. “Entrepreneurship in Korea: based on Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Korea 2012.” Journal of the Korean Entrepreneurship Society 8, no. 3: 27~57. [반성식ㆍ서상구ㆍ송경모ㆍ조동환ㆍ박종해ㆍ차민석ㆍ박종복(2013), 「한국의 기업가정신 활동: 2012년 글로벌기업가정신연구(GEM)를 중심으로」, 한국창업학회지 제8권 제3호, pp. 27~57.]

Bahn, Sung-sik, Sang-Gu Seo, Kyung-Mo Song, Jong-Hae Park, Min-Seok Cha, Min-Seon Cho, and Jong-Bok Park. 2014. 2013 GEM Korea Report. Gyeongnam National University of Science, and Technology and Korea Institute for Global Entrepreneurship. [반성식ㆍ서상구ㆍ송경모ㆍ박종해ㆍ차민석ㆍ조민선ㆍ박종복(2014), 「글로벌 기업가정신 연구 2013 연구보고서」, 경남과학기술대학교ㆍ(사)한국글로벌기업가정신연구원.]

Bammel, Steven, and Hwan-Joo Seo. 2017. “The Effects of Self-Employment Congestion on the Economic Outcomes of the Self-Employed and Wage Earners in the Korean Service Sector.” Journal of Industrial Innovation 33, no. 4: 145–174. [스티븐 밤멜ㆍ서환주(2017), “자영업 혼잡의 경제적 영향에 대한 분석: 서비스부분 자영업자와 임금근로자의 소득에 미치는 영향을 중심으로,” 산업혁신연구, 제33권 제4호, pp. 145∼174.]

Bammel, Steven, and Hwan-Joo Seo. 2019. “Analysis of Korean Service-Sector Self-Employment Using the Self-Employment Congestion Rate.” Journal of Industrial Innovation 35, no. 2: 61–89. [스티븐 밤멜ㆍ서환주(2019), “자영업 혼잡률 개념을 이용한 한국 서비스 자영업 분석,” 산업혁신연구, 제35권 제2호, pp. 61∼89.]

Bammel, Steven, and Hwan-Joo Seo. 2020. “A Multi-Criteria Study of Korean Self-Employment Weakness.” Journal of Industrial Innovation 36, no. 2: 111–134. [스티븐 밤멜ㆍ서환주(2020), “복수의 기준을 사용한 한국 자영업 영세성 분석,” 산업혁신연구, 제36권 제2호, pp. 111∼134.]

Barbieri, Paolo. 2003. “Social capital and self-employment: a network analysis experiment and several considerations” International Sociology 18, no. 4: 681–701.

Bateman, Milfred, and Ha-Joon Chang. 2009. “The Microfinance Illusion.” SSRN Electronic Journal, 10.2139/ssrn.2385174.

Baumol, William. 1967. “Macroeconomics of Unbalanced Growth: The Anatomy of Urban Crisis.” American Economic Review 57, no. 2: 415–426.

Bin, Bong-Sik, and Jung-Ki Park. 2002. “An Empirical Study on the Successful Factors of Small Business Start-Ups” Asia Pacific Journal of Small Business 24, no. 3 (September): 135–158. [빈봉식ㆍ박정기(2002), “소상공인 창업의 성공요인에 관한 실험적 연구,” 중소기업연구, 제24권 제3호 (2002년 9월), pp. 135∼158.]

Blanchflower, David G., & Andrew J. Oswald. 1998. “What Makes and Entrepreneur?” Journal of Labor Economy 16, no. 1: 26–60.

Blanchflower, David G. 2004. “Self-employment: More may not be better.” Swedish Economic Policy Review 11, no. 2: 15–73.

Blau, David M. 1987. “A Time-Series Analysis of Self-Employment in the United States.” Journal of Political Economy 95, no. 3 (June 1987): 445–467.

Bosma, Niels, and Donna Kelley. 2019. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2018/2019 Global Report. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor.

Boyer, Tristan, and Blazy, Règis. 2014. “Born to be alive? The survival of innovative and non-innovative French micro-start-ups.” Small Business Economics 42: 669–683.

Caballero, Ricardo J., and Mohamad L. Hammour. 1994. “The Cleansing Effect of Recessions.” The American Economic Review 84, no. 5 (December): 1350–68.

Caballero, Ricardo J., Takeo Hoshi, and Anil K. Kashyap. 2008. “Zombie Lending and Depressed Restructuring in Japan.” American Economic Review 98, no. 5: 1943–1977.

Carmona, Mónica, Emilio Congregado, and Antonio A. Golpe. 2012. “Comovement between self-employment and macroeconomic variables: evidence from Spain.” Sage Open April. doi: 10.1177/2158244012448665.

Carree, Martin, Andrè van Stel, Roy Thurik, and Sander Wennekers. 2002. “Economic development and business ownership: an analysis using data of 23 OECD countries in the period 1976–1996.” Small Business Economics 19, no. 3: 271–290.

Castellacci, Fulvio. 2008. “Technological paradigms, regimes and trajectories: Manufacturing and service industries in a new taxonomy of sectoral patterns of innovation.” Research Policy 37: 978–994.

Chang, Jang-Yee, Jae-Han Lee, Min-Seong Kim, and Yong-Ki Lee. 2014. “Effect of Foodservice Franchisee Perceived Justice on Emotion, Satisfaction, and Recontracting Intention.” Journal of Distribution and Management Research 17, no. 3 (June 30): 21–36. [장장이ㆍ이재한ㆍ김민성ㆍ이용기(2014), “외식프랜차이즈 가맹점의 지각된 공정성이 감정, 만족, 그리고 재계약의도에 미치는 영향,” 유통경영학회지, 제17권 제3호 (2014년 6월 30일), pp. 21∼36.]

Cheon, Byung-You. 2003. “Study of Selection of Self-Employment in Korea.” Korean Journal of Labor Economics 26, no. 3: 149–150. [전병유(2003), “자영업 선택의 결정 요인에 관한 연구,” 노동경제논집, 제26권 제3호, pp. 149∼150.]

Cho, Dong-Hun. 2013. “International Comparison of Determinants of Self-Employment: The Role of Industrial and Family Structure.” Korean Journal of Industrial Relations 23, no. 2: 127–146. [조동훈(2013), “자영업 결정요인 국제 비교 분석: 산업과 가족구조 효과,” 산업관계연구, 제23권 제2호, pp. 127~146.]

Choi, Byoung-Mohk. 1996. “Study of Koreans in Self-Employment in the United States.” Korea Journal of Population Studies 19, no. 2 (December): 139–173. [최병목(1996), “미국에서 한인 자영업에 관한 연구,” 한국인구학, 제19권 제2호 (1996년 12월), pp. 139∼173.]

Choi, Min. 2007. “New Business Models in the Information Economy: GDP and Case Studies in Korea.” (Master’s thesis, Korea University).

Cunningham, Wendy V., and William F. Maloney. 2001. “Heterogeneity among Mexico’s Microenterprises: An Application of Factor and Cluster Analysis.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 50, no. 1 (October): 131–156.

Dennis, William J. 1996. “Self-employment: When nothing else is available?” Journal of Labor Research 17, no. 4: 645–661.

Distribution Industry Development Act, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (Republic of Korea). [「유통산업발전법」, 산업통상자원부.]

Dollinger, Marc J. 1995. Entrepreneurship: strategies and resources, Austen Press.

Duncan, Otis D. 1965. “Social Origins of Salaried and Self-Employed Professional Workers.” Social Forces 44, no. 2: 186–189.

Evans, David S., and Linda S. Leighton. 1989. “Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship.” The American Economic Review 79, no. 3: 519–535.

Falco, Paolo, and Luke Haywood. 2016. “Entrepreneurship versus joblessness: Explaining the rise in self-employment” Journal of Development Economics 118: 245–265.

Gartner, William B. 1989. “’Who Is an Entrepreneur?’ Is the Wrong Question” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 13: 47–68.

Gerber, Michael E. 1995. The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don’t Work and What to Do About It. HarperBusiness.

Ghatak, Maitreesh, Massimo Morelli, and Tomas Sjöström. 2007. “Entrepreneurial talent, occupational choice, and trickle up policies.” Journal of Economic Theory 137, no. 1 (November)): 27–48.

Gopinath, Gita, Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan, Loukas Karabarbounis, and Carolina Villegas-Sanchez. 2015. “Capital Allocation and Productivity in South Europe.” NBR Working Paper, No. 21453.

Government Organization Act, Ministry of Interior and Safety (Republic of Korea). [「정부조직법」, 행정안전부.]

Granovetter, Mark. 1973. “The Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology 78, no. 6 (May): 1360–1380.

Gunther, Isabel, and Andrey Launov. 2012. “Informal employment in developing countries: Opportunity or last resort?” Journal of Development Economics 97: 88–98.

Gweon, Woo-Hyeon, Cheong-Seong Park, Dong-Hoon Cho, and Geul Bang. 2014. Forecast of Employment Structure and Manpower Demand in Self-Employment. Korea Employment Information Service, Seoul: Saenggag Suimpyo: Human Culture Arirang. [권우현ㆍ박청성ㆍ조동훈ㆍ방글(2014), 「자영업의 고용구조와 인력수요 전망」, 한국고용정보원, 서울: 생각쉽표: 휴먼컬처아리랑.]

Henley, Andrew. 1999. “Being Your Own Boss: Entrepreneurial Choice, Earnings and Employment Creation in 1990s Britain.” (conference paper. European Association of Labour Economists Conference Regensberg, Germany, September 23–26).

Henrekson, Magnus. 2004. “Comment on David G. Blanchflower: Is More Self-Employment Good or Bad?” Swedish Economic Policy Review 11, no. 2.

Hipp, Lena, Janine Bernhardt, and Jutta Allmendinger. 2015. “Institutions and the prevalence of nonstandard employment.” Socio-Economic Review 13, no. 2: 351–377.

Hong, Min-Gi, and Sang-Bong Oh. 2018. Analysis of Dynamic Changes in Self-Employment Management Circumstances (Policy Study 2018-06, Korea Labor Institute). [홍민기ㆍ오상봉(2018), 「자영업 경영상황의 동태적 변화 분석」, 정책연구 2018-06호, 한국노동연구원.]

Hughes, Karen D. 2003. “Pushed or pulled? Women’s entry into self‐employment and small business ownership” Gender, Work & Organization 10, no. 4: 433–454.

Industrial Development Act, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (Republic of Korea). [「산업발전법」, 산업통상자원부.]

Jang, Ki-Jin, and Hyuk-Jun Choi. 2014. “Study on the Innovation Capability Strengthening Plan for Manufacture-Based Knowledge Service Industries.” e-Business Studies 15, no. 4 (August): 215–235. [장기진ㆍ최혁준(2014), “제조기반 지식서비스산업의 혁신역량 강화방안”, 「e-비즈니스연구」 제15권 제4호, pp. 215~235.]

Jeon, Byeong-Mok. 2005. “Changes in Income Tax Burden and Self-Employment Sector Size.” Public Finance Forum (May): 24–43. [전병목(2005), “소득세 부담과 자영업자 규모 변화,” 재정포럼, 2005년 5월호, pp. 24∼43.]

Jeon, In-Woo, Jeong-Sik Yoo, Seong-Ho Choi, Chang-Min Lee, and Seong-Mi Yoon. 2005. “Policy Challenges and Improvement Plans for Strengthening Micro Enterprise Competitiveness.” (Basic Research 05-11, Korea Small Business Institute). [전인우ㆍ유정식ㆍ최성호ㆍ이창민ㆍ윤성미(2005), 「소상공인 경쟁력 강화를 위한 정책과제와 개선방안」, 기본연구 05-11, 중소기업연구원.]

Jeon, In-Woo, and Seong-Ho Choi. 2006. “Determinants of Self-Employment Sector Share in OECD Economies and Policy Implications Thereof.” Asia Pacific Journal of Small Business 28, no. 3: 165–181. [전인우ㆍ최성호(2006), “OECD 회원국 경제에서의 자영업 부문 비중 결정요인과 정책 시사점,” 중소기업연구, 제28권 제3호, pp. 165~181.]

Jeon, In-Woo, and Wan-Soo Jeong. 2014. “Past, Present, and Future of Self-Employment Policy.“ KOSBI SME Focus #14-12 (Nov. 10, 2014). [전인우ㆍ정완수(2014), “자영업 정책의 과거, 현재 그리고 미래,” KOSBI 중소기업 포커스, 제14-12호 (2014년 11월 10일).]

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Joint Public Agencies. 2016. Measures to Strengthen the Competitiveness of Micro-Enterprises. November 3, 2016. Economic Ministerial Meeting 16-17-2. [관계부처 합동(2016), 「소상공인 경쟁력 강화방안」, 2016년 11월 3일, 경제관계장관회의 16-17-2.]

Joint Public Agencies. 2018a. Support Measures for Micro-Enterprises and Self-Employed Workers. August 22, 2018. [관계부처 합동(2018a), 「소상공인ㆍ자영업자 지원대책」, 2018년 8월 22일.]

Joint Public Agencies. 2018b. Job and Income Support Measures for Low-Income Groups. July 18, 2018. Economic Ministerial Meeting 18–11. [관계부처 합동(2018b), 「저소득층 일자리ㆍ소득지원 대책」, 2018년 7월 18일, 경제관계장관회의 18–11.]

Joo, Hyun, Sook-Kyung Kim, Seok-Il Hong, Jong-Ho Kim, and Shin-Wook Kang. 2010. Analysis of the Optimal Self-Employment Share and Study of Policy Challenges (Policy Study 10-07), Small Enterprise Development Agency, and Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade). [주현ㆍ김숙경ㆍ홍석일ㆍ김종호ㆍ강신욱 (2010), 「자영업 비중의 적정성 분석 및 정책과제 연구」, 소상공인시장진흥공단 (구: 소상공인진흥원)ㆍ산업연구원, 정책연구, 10-07호.]

Kang, Chang-Hui, and Gyeong-Joon Yoo. 2018. “An International Comparison of Determinants of Self-Employment Participation: Focusing on Social Policy Factors.” Journal of Budget and Policy 7, no. 2 (December): 129–158. [강창희ㆍ유경준(2018), “자영업자 비중 결정요인의 국제비교: 사회정책적 요인을 중심으로,” 예산정책연구, 제7권 제2호 (2018년 12월), pp. 129∼158.]

Kang, Ji-Soo, Hyun-Bae Chun, and Jang-Hee Cho. 2017. “Entry, Exit and Productivity Growth in the Service Sector: Evidence from Industries with the Restriction of Excessive Entry.” Korean Economic Journal 65, no. 4: 129–157. [강지수ㆍ전현배ㆍ조장희(2017), “진입퇴출과 서비스업 생산성 성장: 과밀창업 억제 대상 자영업을 중심으로,” 경제학연구, 제65집 제4호, pp. 129∼157.]

Keum, Jae-Ho, and Joon-Mo Cho. 2000. “Theory and Empirical Analysis on Self-Employment Selection.” Korean Journal of Labor Economics 23 (February): 81–108. [금재호ㆍ조준모(2000), “자영업의 선택에 관한 이론 및 실증분석,” 노동경제논집, 제23권 (2000년 2월), pp. 81∼108.]

Keum, Jae-Ho, Jae-Woo Ryoo, Byeong-Yoo Jeon, and Kang-Shik Choi. 2003. “Current Conditions and Challenges of the Self-Employment Labor Market” (Research Report 2003-17, Korea Labor Institute). [금재호ㆍ류재우ㆍ전병유ㆍ최강식(2003), 「자영업 노동시장의 현상과 과제」, 연구보고서 2003-17, 한국노동연구원.]

Keum, Jae-Ho, Mi-Rye Yoon, Joon-Mo Cho, and Gang-Shik Choi. 2006. “Actual Conditions and Policy Challenges of Self-Employment” (Policy Study 2006-10, Korea Labor Institute). [금재호ㆍ윤미례ㆍ조준모ㆍ최강식(2006), 「자영업의 실태와 정책과제」, 정책연구, 2006-10호, 한국노동연구원.]

Keum, Jae-Ho, and In-Sill Yi. 2011. “Analysis on Sales and Income of Self-Employment.” Journal of Korean Economics Studies 29, no. 4 (December): 103–140. [금재호ㆍ이인실(2011), “자영업 매출과 소득의 결정요인 분석,” 한국경제연구, 제29권 제4호 (2011년 12월), pp. 103∼140.]

Kihlstrom, Richard E., and Jean-Jacques Laffont. 1979. “A General Equilibrium Theory of Firm Formation Based on Risk-Aversion.” Journal of Political Economy 87, no. 4 (August 1979): 719-48.

Kim, Chul-Min, and Seung-Man Shin. 2015. “A Conceptual Study of Government Support Policy for the Micro-Enterprises and Self-Employed Workers: A Critical Perspective.” Journal of Industrial Innovation 31, no. 4: 175–205. [김철민ㆍ신승만(2015), “소상공인 및 자영업자 지원정책에 관한 소고: 비판적 고찰,” 산업혁신연구, 제31권 제4호, pp. 175~205.]

Kim, Lin. 2019. “A Legal Perspective on Seeking Social Justice to Overcome the Crisis of Small and Dependent Self-Employed.” Labor Law Review 46 (March): 69–101. [김린(2019), “영세종속적 자영업자의 위기극복을 위한 사회정의의 모색: 법적 관점에서의 시론,” 노동법연구, 제46권 (2019년 3월), pp. 69∼101.]

Kim, Mi-Kyung, Ki-Joon Kwon, and Kyung-Il Chung. 2014. “The Influence of Franchisers’ Leadership Types in the Food Service Industry on Relational Commitment of Franchisees and the Moderating Effect of Leader Member Exchange (LMX).” Journal of Foodservice Management Society of Korea 17, no. 4 (August): 295–319. [김미경ㆍ권기준ㆍ정경일(2014), “외식 프랜차이즈 본부의 리더십 유형이 가맹점과의 관계결속에 미치는 영향과 리더-멤버 교환관계(LMX)의 조절효과,” 외식경영학회, 제17권 제4호 (2014년 8월), pp. 295∼319.]

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Suh, Geun-Ha, Chang-Soo Suh, and Sung-Wook Yoon. 2013. “Development of Estimations of the Proper Size of Korean Small Businesses and Scheme for Advancement of Management Structure: Focused on the Comparison of OECD Countries.” Asia Pacific Journal of Small Business 35, no. 3 (September): 111–132. [서근하ㆍ서창수ㆍ윤성욱(2013), “한국 소상공인사업체 적정규모 추정법 개발과 경영구조 선진화 방안에 관한 연구: OECD 국가와 비교를 중심으로,” 중소기업연구, 제35권 제3호 (2013년 9월), pp. 111∼132.]

Suh, Geun-Ha, You-Tay Lee, Hwa-Bong Noh, and Jum-Suk Ryu. 2014. “Study of the Influence of Excessive Competition Among Small Enterprises on Rate of Entry and Discontinuance of Business” The Journal of Small Business Innovation 17, no. 2: 13–32.

Suh, Geun-Ha, Seong-Ho Kim, and Chang-Soo Suh. 2019. “A Study on Improvement Methods of Forecasting Micro-Enterprise and Self-Employment Economic Trends in Korea” (from a collection of papers presented at the Korea Distribution Science Association Academic Conference: 123–127). [서근하ㆍ김성호ㆍ서창수(2019), “한국의 소상공인 및 자영업 경기동향 예측 개선방향에 관한 연구,” 한국유통과학회 학술대회 논문짐, pp. 123∼127.]

Suh, Jae-Man. 2011. Current Conditions and Policy Direction for Self-Employed Workers, National Assembly Budget Office: Seoul. [서재만(2011), 「자영업자 현황 및 정책 방향」, 국회예산정책처, 서울.]

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Suh, Yong-Gu, and Suk-Kyung Kim. 2012. “Current Conditions of Retail Micro-Enterprises Analyzed Through International Comparison, and Policy Implications.” Journal of Channel and Retailing 17, no. 5: 39–57. [서용구ㆍ김숙경(2012), “국제 비교를 통한 소매업 소상공인 현황과 정책적 시사점,” 유통연구, 제17권 제5호, pp. 39∼57.]

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