Glossary of Important Study Terminology

Key concepts

KoreanEnglishDescriptionAdditional
자영업self-employment자영업 부문: self-employment sector
영세자영업weak self-employmentMain focus of study영세자영업 부문: weak self-employment subsector
비영세자영업non-weak self-employmentThe part of the self-employment sector that this study does not focus on비영세자영업 부문: non-weak self-employment subsector

Criteria of weak self-employment

영세자영업 기준criteria of weak self-employment
창업동기start-up motivationcriteria of weak self-employment
> 밀어내기 가설push hypothesisStart-up motivation associated with weak self-employment
> 끌어들이기 가설pull hypothesisStart-up motivation associated with non-weak self-employment
조직 규모organizational sizecriteria of weak self-employment
재정적 성과financial performancecriteria of weak self-employment
> 임금wages and salaryMeasure of financial performance for non self-employed workersSyn.: 급여
> 소득incomePrimary measure of financial performance for self-employed workers
> 매출salesAlso used in some literature to measure financial performance of self-employed workers
업종business typecriteria of weak self-employment

Indicators of weak self-employment

영세자영업 비중weak self-employment rateRatio of weak self-employed to total employed using criteria other than the criteria specifically defined in this study for weak self-employed
자영업 혼잡률self-employment congestion rateRatio of weak self-employed to total employed using the criteria specifically defined in this study for weak self-employed
자영업 영세성 비중self-employment weakness rateRatio of weak self-employed to total self-employed
자영업률self-employment rateRatio of self-employed to total employedSyn.: 자영업자 비율, 자영업 비중

People

Workers/non-workers

KoreanEnglishDescriptionAdditional
취업자job holder
미취업자person without a jobSyn.: 비취업자, 무업자, 무직업자, 무직자
실업자unemployed personSyn.: 실직자
비경제활동자economically inactive person
퇴직자retired person
구직자job seeker
비근로자non-worker

Self-employed workers

KoreanEnglishDescriptionKorean
자영업자self-employed workerSyn.: 자영 근로자, 자영 노동자, 자영부문 종사자
비임금근로자non-wage-and-salary workerRefers to someone in the self-employment sector. In this study, includes self-employed workers and unpaid family workers
자영업주self-employed business owner
사업주business owner
사업자businesspersonSyn.: 사업가
프리랜서freelancerSyn.: 자유직업자
재택근무 자영업자self-employed working from home
창업자business founderGenerally used in an entrepreneurial context
영세자영업자weak self-employed worker
무급 가족종사자unpaid family workerSyn.: 무급 가족 종업원, 가족종사자
개인사업자sole proprietor개인사업체 = sole proprietorship
단독 자영업자self-employed worker working aloneSyn.: 1인 자영업자
고용원이 없는 자영업자self-employed worker without any employees
자영자own-account self-employed workerOften used in the context of a self-employed person without any employeesSyn.: 순수 자영업자
생계형 자영업자self-employed worker working merely to earn a livingSyn: 생업형 자영업자, 생계형 창업자
한계형 자영업자marginal self-employed workerSyn: 한계 자영업자
특수형태근로종사자workers in special types of employmentSyn.: 특수고용인, 특수고용노동자
종속적 자영업자dependent self-employed worker
가짜 자영업자false self-employed worker
유사근로자quasi-employed worker
비영세한 자영업자non-weak self-employed workerSyn.: 비영세자영업자
고용주employerSyn.: 사용자
고용원이 있는 자영업자self-employed worker with employees
기업가entrepreneurCould also have a more general meaning like “businessperson”
기업가형 자영업자entrepreneurial self-employed business owner
기회추구형 자영업자opportunity-seeking self-employed business ownerSyn.: 기회형 자영업자
혁신형 자영업자innovative self-employed business owner
전문가형 자영업professional-type self-employed business owner

Wage-and-salary workers

KoreanEnglishDescriptionAdditional
임금근로자wage-and-salary worker
종업원employeeSyn.: 직원, 피용자, 고용원
상시 근로자regular workerMainly refers to full-time employees
외부종사자outside workerIn contrast to family workers
유급 종업원paid employeeIn contrast to unpaid workers, mainly family workers
봉급 생활자salaried worker
임금노동자wage laborer임노동자
영세한 임금근로자weak wage-and-salary worker
비상용근로자non-regular employed worker비정규직근로자, 비상용근로자
임시근로자temporary worker
한계노동자marginal laborer
시간제 임금근로자hourly wage/salary worker
임금노동자wage laborerSyn.: 임노동자
한시근로자contingent worker
단시간 근로자part-time worker
일일종사자day workerSyn.: 일용근로자
용역 근로자subcontract worker
파견 근로자temp-agency worker
비영세한 임금근로자non-weak wage-and-salary worker
상용근로자regular employed worker정규직근로자, 상용직근로자, 상용직임금근로자

Other concepts and terms

Work status

종사상 지위work statusWith the dataset used in this study, work can be classified based on work status into two categories: non-wage-and-salary work and wage-and-salary work.Syn.: 취업 형태
비임금근로non-wage-and-salary workSyn.: 자영업 근로
임금근로wage-and-salary work

Entrepreneurship

KoreanEnglishDescriptionAdditional
기업가 성향적entrepreneurial

Franchising

KoreanEnglishDescriptionAdditional
프랜차이즈 제도franchising프랜차이즈 시스템
프랜차이즈 본부franchisor가맹본부, 프랜차이저, 프랜차이즈 본사, 프랜차이즈 가맹본부
프랜차이즈 가맹점franchisee프랜차이즈 가맹자, 프랜차이지, 가맹점 사업자, 가맹점, 프랜차이즈 가맹사업자
비가맹점non-franchisee
직영점company-run store
가맹영업점franchised store가맹영업점포
가맹계약서franchise agreement
독립 자영업자independent self-employed workercontrasted with franchisee, as in working independently without franchise support

Microfinance and formal/informal sectors

KoreanEnglishDescriptionAdditional
공식 부문formal sector
비공식 부문informal sector
극소금융권microfinance sector미소금융권
극소사업microbusinessSpelling variants: micro-business, micro business. Can be applied likewise to other similar terms on this page, including microfirm, microenterprise, and microfinance.극소사업체, 극소사업자, 미소사업, 미소사업체, 미소사업자
극소기업microfirm, microenterprise미소기업
극소금융microfinance미소금융
개발도상국developing country

Other terms

KoreanEnglishDescriptionAdditional
사업체business entity기업체
법인사업체corporate entity
비공식 부문informal sector
폐업률business closure rate
창업률enterprises birth date
고용주 사업체 천율employer enterprise churn rate
퇴직금severance pay
독립 계약자independent contractor
업자trader, dealer
하청업자subcontractor
노점상street vendor
소매상retailer
독자적 사업independent business
취업인구working population
노동시장labor market
일자리job
근로자worker종사자
노동자laborer
상용직regular employment position정규직
비상용직non-regular employment position비정규직, 비상용직
임시직temporary position
일용직day job
비표준적인 고용non-standard employment
상용직regular employment position정규직
자영업체self-employed business
소규모 사업체small-size business entity소규모 기업, 소규모 사업
생계형 사업체subsistence-type business entity
개인사업체sole proprietorship
소상공인sosanggonginDefined under Korean law as a businessperson/ business having 10 or fewer regular employees. Lit.: small businesspersonWritten in this study as the transliterated Korean word to make the Korea-specific meaning clear. However, this Korean term is translated elsewhere using a variety of English terms, including small commercial and industrial businessman, microenterprise, micro enterprise, microbusiness, microbusiness owner, and small enterprise. In official terms, such as laws and organizations, usually translated in this study as “micro enterprise.”

소상공인 사업체 = sosanggongin entity
취약계층disadvantaged groups